Database search
The current mtDNAmanager¡¯s open database contains 9294 mtDNA control region sequences and they are grouped in the following five subsets: African (1496), West Eurasian (3673), East Asian (2326), Oceanian (114), and Admixed (1685). All these mtDNA control region sequences are shown with the estimated haplogroup-affiliations (both expected and estimated haplogroups) using the bioinformatics resources of the mtDNAmanager. In case of data which has been assigned to a certain haplogroup in the previous publications, the haplogroup information is provided in "description" of the data.

By default but with an exchangeable setting, a query system of the mtDNAmanager retrieves sequences which include the queried nucleotide polymorphisms therein from a user-selected database. The resulting data with the estimated haplogroup-affiliation can highlight nucleotide polymorphisms which are specific for a certain group of mtDNA haplotypes, thus, distinguish haplogroup-specific mutation sites from retrieved sequence data. This allows refined mtDNA haplogroup classification, providing a more precise interpretation of sequence data and a refinement of phylogeny.
With an alternative setting, a query system of the mtDNAmanager also searches sequences which show a match with the queried sequence data from the database. To overcome the data reporting difference among different laboratories due to variability in analysis region, ambiguities with respect to mtDNA nomenclature and different treatment of length variants (insertion/deletion), the mtDNAmanager also provides options available such as analysis regions (HV1: np 16024-16365; HV2: np 73-340; HV3: np 438-576; and control region: np 16024-16569, np 1-576), heteroplasmic insertions in the poly C-stretches and a mismatch.


22. Mikkelsen M, Sorensen E, Rasmussen EM, Morling N. Mitochondrial DNA HV1 and HV2 variation in Danes. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2010;4(4):e87-e88.

21. Diegoli TM, Irwin JA, Just RS, Saunier JL, O'Callaghan JE, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial control region sequences from an African American population sample. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009;4(1):e45-e52.

20. Irwin JA, Saunier JL, Beh P, Strouss KM, Paintner CD, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial DNA control region variation in a population sample from Hong Kong, China. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009;3(4):e119-e125.

19. Turchi C, Buscemi L, Giacchino E, Onofri V, Fendt L, Parson W, Tagliabracci A. Polymorphisms of mtDNA control region in Tunisian and Moroccan populations: an enrichment of forensic mtDNA databases with Northern Africa data. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009;3(3):166-172.

18. Saunier JL, Irwin JA, Strouss KM, Ragab H, Sturk KA, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population sample. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009;3(3):e97-e103.

17. Lander N, Rojas MG, Chiurillo MA, Ramirez JL. Haplotype diversity in human mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I-III in the city of Caracas (Venezuela). Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2008;2(4):e61-e64.

16. Just RS, Diegoli TM, Saunier JL, Irwin JA, Parsons TJ. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for 265 African American and U.S. "Hispanic" individuals. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2008;2(3):e45-e48.

15. Irwin JA, Saunier JL, Strouss KM, Diegoli TM, Sturk KA, O'Callaghan JE, Paintner CD, Hohoff C, Brinkmann B, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial control region sequences from a Vietnamese population sample. Int J Legal Med. 2008;122(3):257-259.

14. Saunier JL, Irwin JA, Just RS, O'Callaghan J, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial control region sequences from a U.S. "Hispanic" population sample. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2008;2(2):e19-e23.

13. Alshamali F, Brandstatter A, Zimmermann B, Parson W. Mitochondrial DNA control region variation in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2008;2(1):e9-e10.

12. Irwin J, Saunier J, Strouss K, Paintner C, Diegoli T, Sturk K, Kovatsi L, Brandstatter A, Cariolou MA, Parson W, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial control region sequences from northern Greece and Greek Cypriots. Int J Legal Med. 2008;122(1):87-89.

11. Zimmermann B, Brandstatter A, Duftner N, Niederwieser D, Spiroski M, Arsov T, Parson W. Mitochondrial DNA control region population data from Macedonia. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2007;1(3-4):e4-e9.

10. Tetzlaff S, Brandstatter A, Wegener R, Parson W, Weirich V. Mitochondrial DNA population data of HVS-I and HVS-II sequences from a northeast German sample. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;172(2-3):218-224.

9. Hedman M, Brandstatter A, Pimenoff V, Sistonen P, Palo JU, Parson W, Sajantila A. Finnish mitochondrial DNA HVS-I and HVS-II population data. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;172(2-3):171-178.

8. Irwin J, Egyed B, Saunier J, Szamosi G, O'callaghan J, Padar Z, Parsons TJ. Hungarian mtDNA population databases from Budapest and the Baranya county Roma. Int J Legal Med. 2007;121(5):377-383.

7. Brandstatter A, Niederstatter H, Pavlic M, Grubwieser P, Parson W. Generating population data for the EMPOP database - an overview of the mtDNA sequencing and data evaluation processes considering 273 Austrian control region sequences as example. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;166(2-3):164-175.

6. Wong HY, Tang JS, Budowle B, Allard MW, Syn CK, Tan-Siew WF, Chow ST. Sequence polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable regions I and II in 205 Singapore Malays. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2007;9(1):33-37.

5. Brandstatter A, Klein R, Duftner N, Wiegand P, Parson W. Application of a quasi-median network analysis for the visualization of character conflicts to a population sample of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from southern Germany (Ulm). Int J Legal Med. 2006;120(5):310-314.

4. Lee HY, Yoo JE, Park MJ, Chung U, Shin KJ. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in Koreans: identification of useful variable sites and phylogenetic analysis for mtDNA data quality control. Int J Legal Med. 2006;120(1):5-14.

3. Brandsattter A, Peterson CT, Irwin JA, Mpoke S, Koech DK, Parson W, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from Nairobi (Kenya): inferring phylogenetic parameters for the establishment of a forensic database. Int J Legal Med. 2004;118(5):294-306.

2. Maruyama S, Minaguchi K, Saitou N. Sequence polymorphisms of the mitochondrial DNA control region and phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA lineages in the Japanese population. Int J Legal Med. 2003;117(4):218-225.

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